Thus, the bells on the robe of the high priest (Ex. The vampire may be mentioned in Proverbs : "The alukah (ʿaluqah) hath two daughters, crying, ' Give, Give.'" Hebrew ʿaluqah may simply mean "leech," but since ʿaulaq occurs in Arabic literature as a name of a vampire, this fabulous creature and her two daughters may be referred to in this rather difficult passage.
–35) recall the use of bells in other cultures in the belief that their tinkling keeps off demons. In this period the religion, while safeguarding its monotheistic character in various ways, nevertheless took on many traits of a dualistic system in which God and the forces of good and truth were opposed in heaven and on earth by powerful forces of evil and deceit.
Belial (or Beliar, a corruption of the original form) is the most common name for the leader of the demons in the Dead Sea Scrolls, and occurs in other intertestamental literature and in Corinthians . Beliyya'al) is a Hebrew compound word which etymologically means "no benefit" or "no thriving" and in liberal usage is often equivalent to "scoundrel." But already in the Bible "streams of Beliyya'al" means "streams of destruction" ( Sam. Mastemah, which as a common noun means approximately "enmity, opposition" in Hosea 9:7, 8 and in some passages in the Five Scrolls, is a demon "Prince Mastemah" in Jubilees (11:5, 11; ; et al.), and perhaps also in the Damascus Document (16:5). ʿirin) are a type of angel mentioned in Daniel , 14, 20. The story of how Jesus cured a demoniac by sending a legion of unclean spirits into a herd of swine (Matt.The mazzikim ("harmful spirits") are said to have been created on the eve of the Sabbath of creation (Avot 5:6) but this late reference is the only one made to demons in the entire Mishnah. 2:8) as "carriages," in Babylon they rendered them "male and female demons" (Git. In fact, in a responsum (published in Lewin, Ozar, p. The Babylonian Jews lived in a world which was filled with demons and spirits, malevolent and sometimes benevolent, who inhabited the air, the trees, water, roofs of houses, and privies.They are invisible; "If the eye could see them no one could endure them. They are more numerous than humans, each person has a thousand on his left and ten thousand on his right" and they are responsible for various inconveniences.Moreover, in none of the languages of the ancient Near East, including Hebrew, is there any one general term equivalent to English "demon." In general, the notion of a demon in the ancient Near East was of a being less powerful than a god and less endowed with individuality.Whereas the great gods are accorded regular public worship, demons are not; they are dealt with in magic rites in individual cases of human suffering, which is their particular sphere.
A Phoenician amulet of the seventh century tread you must not tread." Intended to protect women in childbirth, it goes on to invoke the protection of the gods, and contains depictions of the demons mentioned: a winged sphinx, labeled "Flying One, Lil[ith]," and a wolf devouring a child.